Final Keyword

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--BY Joel Mathias
/* All members and variables can be overriden by default in subclasses. Final Keyword Is Used in Java to prevent the subclass from overridding the members of the superclass. Making a method final ensures that the functionality defiened in the mathod will never be altered in any way. Similarily the value of the final variable can never be altered in any way. */
class fe
{
double fp;
int fr;

fe(double p1,int r1)
{
fp=p1;
fr=r1;
}
}

class se extends fe
{
double sp;
int sr;

se(double p1,int r1,double p2,int r2)
{
super(p1,r1);
sp=p2;
sr=r2;
}
}

final class te extends se
{
double tp;
int tr;

te(double p1,int r1,double p2,int r2,double p3,int r3)
{
super(p1,r1,p2,r2);
tp=p3;
tr=r3;
}

double average()
{
return (fp+sp+tp)/3;
}
}

class Student
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
te student = new te(75.6,40,78.6,44,70.5,48);
System.out.println("Year\tRoll no.\tPercentage");
System.out.println("FE\t"+student.fr+"\t\t"+student.fp);
System.out.println("SE\t"+student.sr+"\t\t"+student.sp);
System.out.println("TE\t"+student.tr+"\t\t"+student.tp);
System.out.println("Average performance is " + student.average());
}
}
/* Output *

Year Roll no. Percentage
FE 40 75.6
SE 44 78.6
TE 48 70.5
Average performance is 74.89999999999999 */

 

Student Details - Hierarchical Inheritance

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--BY Joel Mathias
/* Program to Implement Hierarchical Inheritance in java Programming Language */
class Info
{
int pid;
char branch;
char year;

Info(int p,char ch,char y)
{
pid = p;
branch = ch;
year = y;
}

void display()
{
System.out.println("\nPID\t: "+pid);

System.out.print("Branch\t: ");
if(branch == 'i')
System.out.println("Information Technology");
if(branch =='e')
System.out.println("Electronics and Telecommunication");
if(branch =='c')
System.out.println("Computer Science");

System.out.print("Year\t: ");
if(year == 'f')
System.out.println("FE");
if(year == 's')
System.out.println("SE");
if(year == 't')
System.out.println("TE");
}
}

class Fe extends Info
{
int c;
int cpp;

Fe(int p,char ch,char y,int m1,int m2)
{
super(p,ch,y);
c = m1;
cpp = m2;
}

void fdisplay()
{
display();
System.out.println("Performance:");
System.out.println("\tC\t"+c);
System.out.println("\tC++\t"+cpp);
}
}

class Se extends Info
{
int vb;
int html;

Se(int p,char ch,char y,int m1,int m2)
{
super(p,ch,y);
vb = m1;
html= m2;
}

void sdisplay()
{
display();
System.out.println("Performance:");
System.out.println("\tVB\t"+vb);
System.out.println("\tHTML\t"+html);
}
}

class Te extends Info
{
int matlab;
int java;

Te(int p,char ch,char y,int m1,int m2)
{
super(p,ch,y);
matlab = m1;
java = m2;
}
void tdisplay()
{
display();
System.out.println("Performance:");
System.out.println("\tMATLAB\t"+matlab);
System.out.println("\tSJava\t"+java);
}
}

class Language
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
Fe F = new Fe(1074,'i','f',9,8);
Se S = new Se(1064,'e','s',6,8);
Te T = new Te(1054,'c','t',9,9);
F.fdisplay();
S.sdisplay();
T.tdisplay();
}
}

/* Output *


PID : 1074
Branch : Information Technology
Year : FE
Performance:
C 9
C++ 8

PID : 1064
Branch : Electronics and Telecommunication
Year : SE
Performance:
VB 6
HTML 8

PID : 1054
Branch : Computer Science
Year : TE
Performance:
MATLAB 9
SJava 9 */

 

Percentage Of Student - Multiple Inheritance

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--BY Joel Mathias
Program that makes use of Multilevel Inheritance in java
/* program To Implement Multilevel Inheritance */
class Fe
{
double fp;
int fr;

Fe(double p1,int r1)
{
fp = p1;
fr = r1;
}
}

class Se extends Fe
{
double sp;
int sr;

Se(double p1,int r1,double p2,int r2)
{
super(p1,r1);
sp = p2;
sr = r2;
}
}

class Te extends Se
{
double tp;
int tr;

Te(double p1,int r1,double p2,int r2,double p3,int r3)
{
super(p1,r1,p2,r2);
tp = p3;
tr = r3;
}

double average()
{
return (fp+sp+tp)/3;
}
}

class Student
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
Te student = new Te(78.5,41,71.73,44,79.8,48);
System.out.println("Year\tRoll no.\tPercentage");
System.out.println("FE\t"+student.fr+"\t\t"+student.fp);
System.out.println("SE\t"+student.sr+"\t\t"+student.sp);
System.out.println("TE\t"+student.tr+"\t\t"+student.tp);
System.out.println("\nAverage Performance is " + student.average());
}
}

/* Output *

Year Roll no. Percentage
FE 41 78.5
SE 44 71.73
TE 48 79.8

Average Performance is 76.67666666666668 */

 

Volume Of Sphere

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--BY Joel Mathias
Single Inheritance Program To Find The Volume Of A cylinder and a sphere
/* Program To Implement Simple Program On Single Inheritance */
class Sphere
{
double r;

double area()
{
return (r * r * r * 4 * 3.1416 / 3);
}

}

class Cylinder extends Sphere
{
double h;

double area()
{
return 3.1416 * r * r * h;
}

}

class Volume
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
Cylinder C = new Cylinder();
C.r = 2.0;
C.h = 6.0;
double cyl = C.area();

Sphere S = new Sphere();
S.r = 5.0;
double sph = S.area();

System.out.println("Area of sphere is "+sph+" and area of cylinder is "+cyl);
}
}

/* OUTPUT *

Area of sphere is 523.6 and area of cylinder is 75.3984 */

 

Single Inheritance To Find Area Of Rectangle

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--BY Joel Mathias
Single Inheritance inherits the properties of one class into another class here is a program that implements single inheritance to find area of a rectangle..

/* Single Inhetitance To Find Area Of Rectangle */
class Dimensions
{
int length;
int breadth;
}

class Rectangle extends Dimensions
{
int a;
void area()
{
a = length * breadth;
}

}

class Area
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
Rectangle Rect = new Rectangle();
Rect.length = 7;
Rect.breadth = 16;
Rect.area();
System.out.println("The Area of rectangle of length "
+Rect.length+" and breadth "+Rect.breadth+" is "+Rect.a);
}
}

/* Output *

The Area of rectangle of length 7 and breadth 16 is 112 */

 

Multiple Inheritance using Interfaces

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What Is an Interface?
In general, an interface is a device or a system that unrelated entities use to interact. According to this definition, a remote control is an interface between you and a television set, the English language is an interface between two people, and the protocol of behavior enforced in the military is the interface between people of different ranks.
Within the Java programming language, an interface is a type, just as a class is a type. Like a class, an interface defines methods. Unlike a class, an interface never implements methods; instead, classes that implement the interface implement the methods defined by the interface. A class can implement multiple interfaces.

The bicycle class and its class hierarchy define what a bicycle can and cannot do in terms of its "bicycleness." But bicycles interact with the world on other terms. For example, a bicycle in a store could be managed by an inventory program. An inventory program doesn’t care what class of items it manages, as long as each item provides certain information, such as price and tracking number. Instead of forcing class relationships on otherwise unrelated items, the inventory program sets up a protocol of communication. This protocol comes in the form of a set of method definitions contained within an interface. The inventory interface would define, but not implement, methods that set and get the retail price, assign a tracking number, and so on.

To work in the inventory program, the bicycle class must agree to this protocol by implementing the interface. When a class implements an interface, the class agrees to implement all the methods defined in the interface. Thus, the bicycle class would provide the implementations for the methods that set and get retail price, assign a tracking number, and so on.

You use an interface to define a protocol of behavior that can be implemented by any class anywhere in the class hierarchy. Interfaces are useful for the following:

  • Capturing similarities among unrelated classes without artificially forcing a class relationship
  • Declaring methods that one or more classes are expected to implement
  • Revealing an object's programming interface without revealing its class
  • Modelling multiple inheritance, a feature that some object-oriented languages support that allows a class to have more than one superclass


Simple Program On Java for the implementation of Multiple inheritance using interfaces to calculate the area of a rectangle and triangle

/* Area Of Rectangle and Triangle using Interface * /

interface Area
{
float compute(float x, float y);
}

class Rectangle implements Area
{
public float compute(float x, float y)
{
return(x * y);
}
}

class Triangle implements Area
{
public float compute(float x,float y)
{
return(x * y/2);
}
}

class InterfaceArea
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle();
Triangle tri = new Triangle();
Area area;
area = rect;
System.out.println("Area Of Rectangle = "+ area.compute(1,2));

area = tri;
System.out.println("Area Of Triangle = "+ area.compute(10,2));
}
}
/** OUTPUT **

Area Of Rectangle = 2.0
Area Of Triangle = 10.0
*/

 

Simple Program To Print on the screen

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/* Simple Program In Java To print on the screen */
class Simple
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
System.out.println("Java Is Better Than C and C++");
}
}

/* Output *
Java Is Better Than C and C++
*/

 

Various Mathematical Funtions

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/*The Given Program Calculates the Following Mathematical operations:
*1. Square root
*2. POwer of a number
*3. Sine Value
*4. Cosine Value
*5. Logarithm Value
*6. Absolute value
*
*
/* Simple Java Program For Various Mathematical Operation */

import java.lang.Math;
class MathFunctions
{
public static void main(System args[])
{
double x = 7;
double y;
System.out.println("Given Number "+x);

y = Math.sqrt(x);
System.out.println("Square Root : "+y);

y = Math.pow(x,3);
System.out.println("Power : "+y);

y = Math.sin(x);
System.out.println("Sine : "+y);

y = Math.cos(x);
System.out.println("Cosine : "+y);

y = Math.log(x);
System.out.println("Logrithm : "+y);

y = Math.abs(x);
System.out.println("Absolute Value : "+y);
}
}

Given Number 7.0
Square Root : 2.6457513110645907
Power : 343.0
Sine : 0.6569865987187891
Cosine : 0.7539022543433046
Logrithm : 1.9459101490553132
Absolute Value : 7.0
*/

 

Two Classes

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/* Simple Java Program For Claculating Area Of A Rectangle Using two Classes */

class TwoClasses
{
float length, breadth;

void getdata(float a, float b)
{
length = a;
breadth = b;
}
}

class Area
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
float area;
TwoClasses Rectangle = new TwoClasses(); // Object Reactangle
Rectangle.getdata(25,35);
area = Rectangle.length * Rectangle.breadth;
System.out.println("Area : "+area);
}
}

/* Output *
*Area : 875
*/

 

Command Line Arguments

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/* Simple Java Program that uses Command line arguments as input */

class ComandLine
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int count, i = 0;
String string;
count = args.length;
System.out.println("Number Of Arguments : "+count);
while(i< count)
{
string = args[i];
i = i + 1;
System.out.println(i+ " : "+"Java Is "+string+ "!");
}
}
}

/* *Compile and run the command line as follows *Java Commandline Simple Object_Oriented Distributed Robust Secure Portable Multithread Dynamic */

/*** OUTPUT ***
As Seen on Java E:\Java\bin>javac Commandline.java

E:\Java\bin>java ComandLine Simple Object_Oriented Disrtibuted Robust Secure por
table Multithread dynamic
Number Of Arguments : 8
1 : Java Is Simple!
2 : Java Is Object_Oriented!
3 : Java Is Disrtibuted!
4 : Java Is Robust!
5 : Java Is Secure!
6 : Java Is portable!
7 : Java Is Multithread!
8 : Java Is dynamic!

*/

 

Pyramid Of Numbers

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/* Simple Program In java to Print the Following Pyramid
1
2 2
3 3 3
4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5 5
6 6 6 6 6 6
7 7 7 7 7 7 7
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
*/

class PyramidNos
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int i,j;
System.out.println("Displaying Numbers:");
for(i=1;i< 10;i++)
{
for(j=1;j< i+1;j++)
{
System.out.print(" " +i);
}
System.out.println();
}
}
}

/* OUTPUT *

1
2 2
3 3 3
4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5 5
6 6 6 6 6 6
7 7 7 7 7 7 7
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
*/

 

Factorial

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/****** Simple Java Program For Factorial ********/
import java.io.*;
class Fact
{
public static void main(String args[])throws IOException
{
int a = 1,n,i;
System.out.print("Enter The Number Whoes Factorial Is To Be Found : ");
BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));
n = Integer.parseInt(br.readLine());
for(i=n;i>0;i--)
{
a = a * i;
}
System.out.println("Factorial of "+n +" is "+a);
}
}
/*********** OUTPUT **********
Enter The Number Whoes Factorial Is To Be Found : 5
Factorial of 5 is 120 */

 

Java Program For Pyramid Of Numbers

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Pyramid Sequence

4
4 3
4 3 2
4 3 2 1


class Pyramid3
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int i,j;
for(i=4;i>=1;i--)
{
for(j=4;j>=i;j--)
System.out.print(" "+j);
System.out.print("\n");
}
}
}

/********* OUTPUT ********
4
4 3
4 3 2
4 3 2 1 */

 

Java Program For Pyramid Of Numbers 2

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Pyramid Sequence
5
5 6
5 6 7
5 6 7 8


class Pyramid2
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int i,j;
for(i=5;i<=8;i++)
{
for(j=5;j<=i;j++)
System.out.print(" "+j);
System.out.print("\n");
}
}
}

/********* OUTPUT ********
5
5 6
5 6 7
5 6 7 8 */

 

Java Program For Pyramid Of Numbers

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Pyramid Sequence

1
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 3 4

class Pyramid1
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int i,j;
for(i=1;i< =4;i++)
{
for(j=1;j< =i;j++)
System.out.print(" "+j);
System.out.print("\n");
}
}
}

/********* OUTPUT ********
1
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 3 4 */

 

Displaying Month Using Switch Case

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/* Java Program For Displaying Month */
public class Month {
public static void main(String[] args) {

int month = 8;
switch (month) {
case 1: System.out.println("January"); break;
case 2: System.out.println("February"); break;
case 3: System.out.println("March"); break;
case 4: System.out.println("April"); break;
case 5: System.out.println("May"); break;
case 6: System.out.println("June"); break;
case 7: System.out.println("July"); break;
case 8: System.out.println("August"); break;
case 9: System.out.println("September"); break;
case 10: System.out.println("October"); break;
case 11: System.out.println("November"); break;
case 12: System.out.println("December"); break;
default: System.out.println("Not a month!"); break;
}
}
}

/* OUTPUT *
*August
*/

 

Variables

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An object stores its state in variables.




Definition: A variable is an item of data named by an identifier.




You must explicitly provide a name and a type for each variable you want to use in your program. The variable's name must be a legal identifier — an unlimited-length sequence of Unicode characters that begins with a letter. You use the variable name to refer to the data that the variable contains. The variable's type determines what values it can hold and what operations can be performed on it. To give a variable a type and a name, you write a variable declaration, which generally looks like this:

type name

In addition to the name and type that you explicitly give a variable, a variable has scope. The section of code where the variable's simple name can be used is the variable's scope. The variable's scope is determined implicitly by the location of the variable declaration, that is, where the declaration appears in relation to other code elements. You'll learn more about scope in the section Scope.

/*** Java Program For Displaying Byte values of various Datatypes */
public class MaxVariables
{
public static void main(String args[])
{

//For integers
byte largestByte = Byte.MAX_VALUE;
short largestShort = Short.MAX_VALUE;
int largestInteger = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
long largestLong = Long.MAX_VALUE;

//For real numbers
float largestFloat = Float.MAX_VALUE;
double largestDouble = Double.MAX_VALUE;

//For other primitive types
char aChar = 'S';
boolean aBoolean = true;

//Output
System.out.println("The largest byte value is "
+ largestByte);
System.out.println("The largest short value is "
+ largestShort);
System.out.println("The largest integer value is "
+ largestInteger);
System.out.println("The largest long value is "
+ largestLong);

System.out.println("The largest float value is "
+ largestFloat);
System.out.println("The largest double value is "
+ largestDouble);

if (Character.isUpperCase(aChar)) {
System.out.println("The character " + aChar
+ " is upper case.");
} else {
System.out.println("The character " + aChar
+ " is lower case.");
}
System.out.println("The value of aBoolean is "
+ aBoolean);
}
}

/****** OUTPUT ******
The largest byte value is 127
The largest short value is 32767
The largest integer value is 2147483647
The largest long value is 9223372036854775807
The largest float value is 3.4028235E38
The largest double value is 1.7976931348623157E308
The character S is upper case.
The value of aBoolean is true */

 

Greatest And Smallest Number

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/************ Implementaion On Numbers In Java*************/

class Numbers
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int i,great_no,small_no;
int no[] = {5,78,1,6,74,9,6,4,6,7};
System.out.println("Elements in the Array : ");
for(i=0;i< 10;i++)
System.out.print(no[i]+"\t");
great_no = no[0]; small_no = no[0];
for(i=1;i< 10;i++)
{
if(great_no< no[i])
great_no = no[i];
else if(small_no>no[i])
small_no = no[i];
}
System.out.print("\nGreatest Number : "+great_no);
System.out.print("\nSmallest Number : "+small_no);
}
}

/************** OUTPUT ****************

Elements in the Array :
5 78 1 6 74 9 6 4 6 7

Greatest Number : 78
Smallest Number : 1 */

 

Sum Of Numbers

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/****** Java Program To Print Sum Of 'n' Number ******/

class Add
{
public static void main (String args[])
{
int n = 15;
int sum = 0;
for(int i = n;i>=0;i--)
sum = sum + i;
System.out.println("Sum = "+ sum);
}
}

/*************** OUTPUT *************
* *
* Sum = 120 */

 

Factorial Of A Number

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/********** Factorial Of A Number **********/

class Factorial
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int a = 5;
int fact = a;
for(int i=a-1;i>=1;i--)
fact = fact * i;
System.out.println("Factorial : "+ fact);
}
}

/********** OUTPUT ***********
Factorial : 120 */

 

Even Or Odd Number

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/* Java Program To Check Whether Number is Even or Odd */

class Even
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int a = 2;
if((a % 2) == 0)
System.out.print("Number is even");
else
System.out.println("Number is odd");

}
}

/************** OUTPUT **************

Number is even */

 

Reverse Of A Number

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/********** Java Program To Print Reverse Of A Number ************/

class Reverse
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int i,s=0,a = 120;
int no[] = new int[10];
System.out.print("Original Number : "+a);
for(i=0;i< 10;i++)
{
if(a!= '\0')
{
no[i] = a%10;
a = a / 10;
s++;
}
else break;
}
System.out.print("\n\nReversed Number : ");
for(i=s;i>0;i--)
{
System.out.print(no[i]);
}
}
}
/************ OUTPUT ************
* Original Number : 120

* Reversed Number : 021 */

 

Matrix Operation In Java

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/******* Java Implementation of Matrix Operation Using Arrays *******/

class Matrix
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int i,j,k;
int mat1 [][]={ {10,11,12}, {13,14,15}, {16,17,18} };
int mat2 [][]={ {1,2,3}, {4,5,6}, {7,8,9} };
System.out.println("Operation ON Matrices \n1.Addition \n");
int sum [][] = new int [3][3];
for(i=0;i <3;i++)
{
for(j=0;j< 3;j++)
{
sum[i][j] = mat1[i][j] + mat2[i][j];
System.out.print("\t" + sum[i][j]);
}
System.out.println("\t");
}

System.out.println("2.Subtraction\n");
int diff[][] = new int[3][3];
for(i=0;i< 3;i++)
{
for(j=0;j< 3;j++)
{
diff [i][j] = mat1[i][j] - mat2[i][j];
System.out.print("\t"+ diff[i][j]);
}
System.out.println("\t");
}

System.out.println("3.Multiplication\n");
int prod[][] = new int[3][3];
for(i=0;i< 3;i++)
{
for(j=0;j< 3;j++)
{
prod[i][j] = 0;
{
for(k=0;k< 3;k++)
prod[i][j] = prod[i][j]+mat1[i][k]*mat2[k][j];
}
System.out.print("\t"+ prod[i][j]);
}
System.out.println("\t");

}
}
}

/************* OUTPUT ***************

Operation ON Matrices
1.Addition

11 13 15
17 19 21
23 25 27
2.Subtraction

9 9 9
9 9 9
9 9 9
3.Multiplication

138 171 204
174 216 258
210 261 312 */